legal systems

Guide to Panama’s Legal System and Research

Guide to the legal system of Panama, by Panamanian lawyers Alvaro Aguilar-Alfu and Kedar Rudy. The research guide was published in 2011 on the Globalex website, which is run by the Hauser Global Law School Program at New York University. It covers the development of the legal system, Panamanian legal concepts and the court system and government of Panama. Links are provided to legal and governmental websites for the jurisdiction.

ICL - Germany Index

Part of the ICL (International Constitutional Law) project managed by the University of Bern, Switzerland. Provides an unofficial English-language translation of the German Constitution, which is known by the name Grundgesetz (Basic Law). It includes amendments made up to and including the 29th amendment of July 29th 2009.

Lowtax.net

The Lowtax.net website provides details of the tax and legal regimes of offshore and onshore jurisdictions. The ‘Global Tax Coverage’ section contains a range of information about these regimes, from an introduction to government to types of company, offshore business sectors and double tax treaties. The vast majority of countries also have a Services Directory and a selection of articles, which are available in a combination of PDF and HTML format.

ICL - Zambia Index

Part of the International Constitutional Law project managed by the University of Bern, Switzerland. Provides a quick-reference list of dates relating to development of and changes to the constitution. Links are given to the 1991 Constitution and the accompanying Constitution Act and to the website of the Zambian Parliament.

AbyssiniaLaw

Portal providing open access to primary and secondary legal materials for Ethiopia, including laws, court decisions, articles, contact guidance and news. The service gives free access to selected codes and laws, some in English, some in Amharic. It also provides decisions of the Supreme Court of Cassation, in Amharic only, and the Constitution (and related instruments) in English and Amharic.

The DoJ & CD

Website of the Department of Justice & Constitutional Development, South Africa. Provides a detailed description of the individual South African courts and their position in the court hierarchy with a link to the court’s own site if available. A section on legislation gives access to Acts and Regulations relating to the work of the department which have been passed since 1994. There are additional sections relating to Bills, Draft regulations, Rules and Practice directions. The 1996 South African Constitution is also available (updated to 16th amendment, 2010).

ICL - South Africa Index

Part of the International Constitutional Law project managed by the University of Bern, Switzerland. Provides a quick reference list of dates relating to development and changes to the South African Constitution. Includes the draft constitution of 1994, the 1996 Constitution and the amended version of 1997 together with accompanying schedules. Provides a brief background to the Constitution with a list of significant historical dates relating to it.

ICL - Tunisia Index

Part of the International Constitutional Law project managed by the University of Bern, Switzerland. It provides a quick-reference list of dates relating to development and changes to the Tunisian Constitution. The Constitution is available in English as amended to 1991.

ICL - Spain Index

Part of the International Constitutional Law project managed by the University of Bern, Switzerland. Provides an English translation of the 1978 Spanish Constitution, including the August 1992 amendment to Article 13(2). It also provides a quick reference list of dates relating to key dates between 1975 (death of General Franco) and 2000 and links to a small selection of Spanish Government web sites.

Citius

A portal managed by the Portuguese Ministério da Justiça. Features include a database which allows users to perform searches related to the Portuguese court system and the allocation of cases to the different courts. The service covers different types of court including the Court of First Instance, appeal courts, administrative and regional courts and provides links to their web sites and also to those of related government departments. Other resources covered include the court libraries and the Leis da Justiça project managed by the Direcção-Geral da Politica de Justiça (DGPJ).

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